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A Second Transient Prostate-Specific Antigen Elevation After External-Beam Radiation Therapy and Fractionated Magnetic Resonance Imaging–Guided High-Dose Rate Brachytherapy Boost

  • Mark V. Mishra
    Affiliations
    Radiation Oncology Branch, National Institutes of Health Department of Health and Human Services, National Cancer Institute
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  • Anurag K. Singh
    Correspondence
    Address for correspondence: Anurag K. Singh, MD Radiation Oncology Branch National Cancer Institute 10 Center Dr, Building 10, CRC Room B2-3561 Bethesda, MD 20892 Fax: 301-480-5439
    Affiliations
    Radiation Oncology Branch, National Institutes of Health Department of Health and Human Services, National Cancer Institute
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      Abstract

      A 63-year-old man with a T1c adenocarcinoma of the prostate, Gleason score of 7 (4 + 3), and a pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of 9.5 ng/mL was treated with external-beam radiation therapy (45 Gy) and 2 magnetic resonance imaging–guided high-dose rate brachytherapy boosts (10 Gy each.) The patient also received neoadjuvant, concurrent, and adjuvant hormonal treatment with leuprolide for 7 months total. Without any further intervention the patient had 2 separate and prolonged PSA increases and decreases 12-35 months after therapy. His PSA nadir was < 0.2 ng/mL and rose slowly over several months to 4.2 ng/mL, resolved, and then rose 2.3 ng/mL before again slowly resolving. After prostate irradiation, many patients experience a transient rise in serum PSA levels and a subsequent decline without any treatment. This is known as a PSA “bounce” or “bump.” Some patients experience a second transient rise in PSA levels after irradiation. To our knowledge, this case report is the first documentation of a second PSA bump in a patient treated with external-beam radiation therapy and high-dose rate boost therapy and provides context to address concerns and therapeutic decisions confronting physicians and patients.

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