The incidence of upper tract recurrence is as high as 6% in patients who undergo radical cystectomy for transitional cell carcinoma. Upper tract surveillance after radical cystectomy can be challenging because of the difficult interpretation of urine cytology and the limited radiographic tools available.
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Published online: May 27, 2016
Accepted: February 14, 2016
Received in revised form: February 4, 2016
Received: November 23, 2015
© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.