Evidence supports upfront regional lymphadenectomy (rND) when primary penile tumors exhibit high-risk features and negative inguinal adenopathy (cN0). We sought to analyze trends in the utilization of early rND as well as assess factors associated with its use and survival outcomes using a nationwide cancer registry database.
Patient and Methods
The National Cancer Database was queried for patients with clinically nonmetastatic penile carcinoma and available nodal status who underwent rND from 1998 to 2012. Temporal trends in the utilization of early rND for those with cN0 disease were analyzed, and a multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify predictors for receiving rND. Survival analysis based on rND status was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard regression.
From 1919 patients with available clinicopathologic variables, performance of early rND was documented in 377 (19.6%) patients with an increase in utilization over time (P = .001). The increase was driven by academic and comprehensive cancer programs compared with community programs (P < .001). Positive predictors were treatment facility, clinical tumor stage, and grade (all P < .05). African American patients (odds ratio [OR], 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.33-0.86; P = .01) and those aged > 75 years (OR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.26-0.68; P < .001) were significantly less likely to receive rND. Early rND was associated with improved overall survival (hazard ratio [HR], 0.67; 95% CI, 0.52-0.87; P = .003).
There was increased use of early lymphadenectomy for patients with cN0 penile cancer driven by comprehensive and academic cancer programs. The study demonstrated demographic and socioeconomic differences that can help identify barriers to care for patients with penile cancer in the United States.
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Published online: April 25, 2017
Accepted: April 14, 2017
Received in revised form: April 7, 2017
Received: February 22, 2017
© 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.