Comparison of Cancer Detection Rates Between TRUS-Guided Biopsy and MRI-Targeted Biopsy According to PSA Level in Biopsy-Naive Patients: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis

Published:September 12, 2018DOI:



      The purpose of the study was to compare cancer detection rates between 12-core transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy (TRUS-Bx) and multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI)-guided target prostate biopsy (MRI-TBx) according to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level in biopsy-naive patients.

      Patients and Methods

      A retrospective study was conducted in 2009 biopsy-naive patients with suspected prostate cancer (PSA ≤20 ng/mL). Patients underwent TRUS-Bx (n = 1786) or MRI-guided target prostate biopsy (MRI-TBx; n = 223) from September 2013 to March 2017 and were stratified according to each of 4 PSA cutoffs. MRI-TBx was performed on lesions with Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) scores of 3 to 5 on mpMRI. Clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa) was defined as Gleason ≥7. Propensity score matching was performed using the prebiopsy variables, which included age, PSA, prostate volume, and PSA density.


      Propensity score matching resulted in 222 patients in each group. There were significant differences between the TRUS-Bx and MRI-TBx groups in the overall detection rates of prostate cancer (41.4% vs. 55.4%; P = .003) and csPCa (30.1% vs. 42.8%; P = .005). However, across PSA cutoffs, MRI-TBx detected more prostate cancer than TRUS-Bx at PSA levels of 2.5 to <4 (29.5% vs. 56.6%; P < .001). The csPCa detection rates of TRUS-Bx and MRI-TBx did not differ significantly within the PSA cutoffs. There was a significantly higher detection rate of prostate cancer and csPCa in lesions with PI-RADS scores 4 and 5 than in those with a score of 3.


      Prebiopsy mpMRI and subsequent targeted biopsy had a higher detection rate than TRUS-Bx in patients with prostate cancer and csPCa.


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