Increasing adoption of immune checkpoint inhibitors in the management of renal cell carcinoma is resulting in a higher rate of atypical responses. They include pseudoprogression, where initial tumor growth is followed by response, and hyperprogression, where there is accelerated growth rate after discontinuation of the previous therapy.
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Published online: July 20, 2018
Accepted: July 14, 2018
Received: June 20, 2018
© 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.