There is evidence linking metformin to improved prostate cancer–related outcomes.
Patients and Methods
Twenty-five men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression while receiving treatment with abiraterone from 3 Swiss centers were included in this single-arm phase 2 trial between November 2013 and September 2016. Metformin was added to abiraterone continuously at 1000 mg twice daily in uninterrupted 4-week cycles. The primary end point was the absence of disease progression at 12 weeks (PFS12). The Fleming single-stage design was applied. With a 5% significance level and 80% power, 25 patients were required to test PFS12 ≤ 15% (H0) compared to ≥ 35% (H1). Secondary end points included toxicity and safety issues. The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT01677897).
The primary end point PFS12 was 12% (3 of 25 patients) (95% confidence interval, 3-31). Most patients had PSA progression, almost half had radiographic progression, but only 1 patient had symptomatic progression. Eleven (44%) of 25 patients had grade 1 and 2 patients each grade 2 (8%) or grade 3 (8%) gastrointestinal toxicity (nausea, diarrhea, loss of appetite). One patient discontinued treatment at week 5 because of intolerable grade 3 diarrhea.
The addition of metformin to abiraterone for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer and PSA progression while receiving abiraterone therapy does not affect further progression and has no meaningful clinical benefit. A higher-than-expected gastrointestinal toxicity attributed to metformin was observed.
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Published online: January 02, 2019
Accepted: December 26, 2018
Received in revised form: December 23, 2018
Received: October 29, 2018
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