Albumin-to-Alkaline Phosphatase Ratio as a Novel Prognostic Factor in Patients Undergoing Nephrectomy for Non-Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: Propensity Score Matching Analysis

Published:January 27, 2022DOI:


      • The present study showed that a low AAPR is associated with poor prongosis in patients with non-metastatic RCC treated with radical or partial nephrectomy.
      • Moreover, AAPR increased the accuracy of multivariable base models using standard prognostic factors, and this result remained almost significant after propensity score weighting.
      • AAPR could be used as an adjunct of established prognostic factors and might be a valuable tool for patient counseling and clinical practice in patients with non-metastatic RCC treated with radical or partial nephrectomy



      To evaluate the prognostic value of albumin-to-alkaline phosphatase ratio (AAPR) on recurrence and survival in patients with non-metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) treated with radical or partial nephrectomy.

      Patients and Methods

      Between June 1994 and December 2018, 491 patients with RCC who underwent radical or partial nephrectomy at 2 institutions were enrolled in this study. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) analyses were performed to distinguish the differences in postoperative recurrence and survival between patients stratified by an optimal cut-off value of AAPR. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were established to determine the independent prognostic factors after propensity score weighting.


      Of the total 491 patients, 51 patients (10.4%) developed local recurrence or distant metastasis and 26 patients (5.3%) died of disease during the follow-up period. Patients with AAPR<0.41 had significantly lower rates of RFS and CSS than those of patients with AAPR≥0.41 in multivariate analysis (P < .001 and P = .027, respectively). After propensity scroe matching analyses, this difference was still remained for RFS (P < .001). However, AAPR was not an independent prognostic factor for CSS but the value was almost pregnant (HR = 2.674; 95%CI = 0.872–8.203; P = .086).


      AAPR can serve as a novel and useful tool to refine prognosis in patients with non-metastatic RCC treated with partial or radical nephrectomy. These findings suggest that AAPR could be a promising prognostic factor for prediction of recurrence and survival in patients with non-metastatic RCC who undergo nephrectomy.


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