Association Between Perioperative Chemotherapy and Survival in Men Undergoing Radical Resection for Primary Urethral Urothelial Carcinoma: An Analysis of the National Cancer Database

Published:January 27, 2022DOI:



      The treatment landscape in invasive primary carcinoma of the urethra of urothelial histology closely aligns that of locally advanced urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. The survival benefit of perioperative chemotherapy for men undergoing radical surgery for primary urethral urothelial carcinoma (UUC) has not yet been well-elucidated.

      Patients and Methods

      Using the National Cancer Database (NCDB), we identified men diagnosed with non-metastatic invasive UUC (T2-4 N0-2 M0) from 2004 to 2016 treated with radical extirpative surgery. We compared OS between patients who had received peri-operative neoadjuvant (NAC) or adjuvant (AC) chemotherapy and those who had not using Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model.


      A total of 191 patients met inclusion criteria. 113 patients (59.2%) did not receive chemotherapy, while 39 (20.4%) and 39 (20.4%) received NAC and AC, respectively. Median follow-up was 28.0 months. Upon multivariable analysis, receipt of NAC (HR 0.50, 95% CI 0.28-0.91, P = .02) decreased the risk of all-cause mortality, while receipt of AC (HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.41-1.41) was not significantly associated with an OS benefit, as compared to no chemotherapy.


      Our study is the first to evaluate treatment specific outcomes in male patients with primary carcinoma of the urethra. We observed that neoadjuvant chemotherapy in men with UUC was associated with OS benefit. The utilization of NAC may improve survival, consistent with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder.


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