Association of Obesity and Diabetes With Prostate Cancer Risk Groups in a Multiethnic Population

Published:January 28, 2022DOI:



      Obesity and diabetes mellitus (DM) have been associated with prostate cancer (PCa) risk, but data examining their combined effects on aggressive PCa are sparse, particularly among non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic men. We investigated the associations of obesity and DM in relation to National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) PCa risk groups in a racially-diverse patient population.

      Patients and Methods

      We abstracted demographic and clinical data from men who underwent radical prostatectomy at our institution between 2005 and 2019. Patients were classified into three NCCN PCa risk-groups: low, intermediate and high-risk. Logistic regression models were used to examine the independent and combined associations of body mass index (BMI)/obesity and DM with risks of intermediate and high-risk PCa, adjusting for age and race/ethnicity.


      A total of 1303 men with PCa (average age 60 ± 6.9 years) were analyzed. The majority were non-Hispanic Black (N = 493, 38%) or Hispanic (N = 407, 31%). The prevalence of obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) and DM was 29.3% (N = 382) and 28.3% (N = 369), respectively. In multivariate analyses, obesity was independently associated with an odds ratio (OR) = 2.21 of high-risk PCa (95% CI: 1.28-3.81), while DM was associated with an OR = 1.49 (95% CI: 1.05-2.11) of intermediate-risk PCa. Compared to non-obese men without diabetes, men with BMI ≥ 30 and DM had increased risks of both intermediate (OR = 1.93; 95% CI 1.12-3.43) and high-risk PCa (OR = 2.40; 95% CI 1.22-4.73). Interestingly, most of the association of high-risk PCa was driven by obesity.


      In this multiethnic population both obesity and DM were independently associated with intermediate- and high-risk PCa; however, most of the association for high-risk cancer was driven by obesity. Our results corroborate findings that obesity increases the risk of aggressive PCa; however, results regarding DM need to be confirmed in other large multiethnic populations.



      PCa (prostate cancer), DM (diabetes mellitus), NCCN (National Comprehensive Cancer Network), OR (odds ratio), CI (confidence interval), NHB (non-Hispanic Black), NHW (non-Hispanic White)
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