- •Systemic adjuvant chemotherapy for muscle-invasive bladder carcinoma is controversial.
- •Systemic adjuvant chemotherapy for muscle-invasive upper tract urothelial carcinoma improves disease-free survival, however with considerable toxicity.
- •Systemic immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) were evaluated in the adjuvant treatment setting with lower risk of toxicity, however with conflicting clinical benefit.
- •After meta-analysis of the ICI available data in the adjuvant setting there was no clinical benefit associate.
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