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Complications in the Early Recovery Period After Radical Cystectomy—Real Data From Impartial Inpatient Rehabilitation

      Abstract

      Purpose

      To examine postoperative complications after radical cystectomy (RC) and creation of an ileum conduit (IC) or a neobladder (NB), and to identify preoperative risk factors in a contemporary series of bladder cancer patients.

      Patients and Methods

      The study relied on prospectively collected data for 842 patients, who underwent inpatient rehabilitation (IR) after RC and urinary diversion (IC n = 447, NB n = 395) between April 2018 and December 2019. Postoperative complications until the end of IR were assessed according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. Uni- and multivariate analyses were performed to identify predictors for complications.

      Results

      A total of 2689 complications occurred in 813 patients (96.6%). High-grade complications occurred more frequently before IR onset (25.5% vs. 5.7%; P < .001), whereas a higher percentage of low-grade complications occurred during IR (89.0% vs. 77.8%; P < .001). The most common complication categories were genitourinary (60.9%), infectious (54.0%) and gastrointestinal (49.2%). Rates of high-grade complications do not differ between IC and NB patients (26.8% vs. 31.6%, P = .126). Independent predictors for overall complications were NB (odds ratio [OR] 21.520; P < .001), age ≥70 years (OR 2.522; P = .027) and higher body mass index (OR 1.153, P = .008). Risk factors for high-grade complications were NB (OR 1.448; P = .039) and Charlson Comorbidity Index ≥2 (OR 1.999; P = .001). Hospital readmission rate was 9.4%.

      Conclusion

      Our study revealed significantly higher overall and high-grade complication rates after RC with IC or NB creation than previously published. A high percentage of low-grade complications occur after hospital discharge. The hospital readmission rate was lower compared to historical data.

      Keywords

      Abbreviations:

      RC (radical cystectomy), IC (ileum conduit), NB (neobladder), IR (inpatient rehabilitation), CDC (Clavien-Dindo classification), CCI (Charlson Comorbidity Index), BMI (body mass index), IQR (interquartile range), CI (confidence interval), OR (odds ratio)
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