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Partial Versus Radical Nephrectomy: Complexity of Decision-Making and Utility of AUA Guidelines

      Abstract

      Introduction

      The American-Urological-Association(AUA) Guidelines for renal cancer(2017) recommend consideration for radical-nephrectomy(RN) over partial(PN) whenever there is increased oncologic-risk; and RN should be prioritized if three other criteria are all also met: 1) increased tumor-complexity; 2) no preexisting chronic-kidney-disease/ proteinuria, and 3) normal contralateral kidney that will likely provide estimated glomerular-filtration-rate (eGFR) >45ml/min/1.73m2 even if RN is performed. Our objective was to assess the complexity of decision-making about RN/PN and utility of AUA Guidelines statements regarding this issue.

      Patients and Methods

      Retrospective review of 267 consecutive RN/PN from 2019(100-RN/167-PN). High tumor-complexity was defined as R.E.N.A.L.≥9. Increased oncologic-risk was defined as tumor >7cm, locally-advanced or infiltrative-features on imaging, or high-risk pathology on biopsy, if obtained. New-baseline GFR after RN was estimated using global-GFR, split-renal-functioncontralateral, and presuming 25% renal-functional-compensation.

      Results

      163 patients(61%) fit scenarios that are well-defined in the Guidelines. Of these, 34 had strong indications for RN, and all had RN. Twelve of 129 patients(9.3%) underwent RN despite Guidelines generally favoring PN. The remaining 104 patients(39%) did not fit within situations where the Guidelines provide specific recommendations. In these patients, RN was often performed despite functional-considerations favoring PN due to overriding concerns about oncologic-risk and/or tumor-complexity.

      Conclusion

      Our data demonstrate complexity of decision-making about PN/RN as almost 40% of patients did not fit well-described AUA Guidelines descriptors. Compliance was generally strong although occasional overutilization of RN remains a concern in our series, and will be addressed with additional education. Further studies will be required to assess the generalizability of our findings in other institutions/settings.

      Keywords

      Abbreviations:

      AUA (American urologic association), BMI (body mass index), CKD (chronic kidney disease), CT (computed tomography), eGFR (estimated glomerular filtration rate), IQR (interquartile range), MAG-3 (mercaptoacetyltriglycine), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), OR (oncologic risk), PN (partial nephrectomy), RCC (renal cell carcinoma), R.E.N.A.L ((R)adius (tumor size as maximal diameter), (E)xophytic/endophytic properties of tumor, (N)earness of tumor deepest portion to collecting system or sinus, (A)nterior (a)/posterior (p) descriptor, and (L)ocation relative to polar lines), RMB (renal mass biopsy), RN (radical nephrectomy), SRF (split renal function), TC (tumor complexity)
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