Original Study| Volume 21, ISSUE 1, P16-23, February 2023

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Management of Localized T1c Prostate Cancer Among Men 75 Years and Older: A National Cancer Database Study

Published:October 12, 2022DOI:



      Elderly men are underrepresented in prostate cancer (PCa) literature, with management based on individualized care pathways and life expectancy. Reports have shown survival benefit with radiation (XRT), surgery, and hormone (ADT) in localized disease. The objective of this study was to assess treatment trends and overall survival (OS) among men 75 years of age and older with cT1c PCa.


      The National Cancer Database was queried to identify patients with cT1c PCa, aged 75 years and older, between 2004 and 2016. We excluded individuals with N1/NX or M1/MX disease, unknown treatment, treatment with both XRT and surgery, surgery other than radical prostatectomy (RP), or PSA > 10 ng/ml. We described 4 treatment cohorts: observation, XRT, surgery, and ADT alone. Treatment trends and OS were analyzed using SPSS.


      Among 49,843 patients, 7% had surgery, 66% had XRT, 5% had ADT alone, and 22% were observed. From 2004-2016, a large decline in XRT was noted, with an increase in surgery and observation. Men receiving ADT alone were significantly older, with higher Gleason's score, and lower incomes. Cox regression revealed survival benefit for surgery and XRT (HR 0.44 and 0.69, P < .001 respectively); ADT had worse survival than observation (HR 1.23, P < .001).


      Fewer men 75 years of age and older with cT1c PCa are being diagnosed and treated. Rates of XRT have declined, with rises in surgery and observation. Survival benefit was seen for surgery and XRT among elderly men, which highlights the importance of proper patient selection for improved outcomes in a highly individualized sphere.


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